Traditional upholstery methods involve jute webbing, coil springs, spring cord, burlap, organic stuffing material, stitching twine, muslin, cotton batting , final fabric and trim. Over time some of these materials fail and need to be replaced. Patrick has researched and practiced traditional upholstery conservation and restoration for the past 50 years. He has developed methods which allow the original organic stuffing material to be cleaned and conserved. The result is an antique which retains its highest value as well as its original comfort. Historic organic stuffing materials include horsehair, straw, seaweed, Spanish moss, excelsior, shredded wool, and other materials. Samples of these will be passed around for student identification. Demonstrations will include spitting tacks, stretching webbing, tying springs properly, stretching and tacking material, stitching edges, cutting show fabric and applying gimp trim or brass tacks.